On 31 August, the 6th Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council declared the political independence of the country, which was officially named the Republic of Uzbekistan. 1 September was proclaimed Independence Day.
From September 1991 to July 1993 the Republic of Uzbekistan was officially recognised by 160 states. On March 2, 1992 Uzbekistan joined the United Nations Organizations as equal member, and joined the Helsinki process by signing the Final Act of the Summit for Security and Cooperation. Since independence, an era of free development began in the history of the Uzbek people.
Today, independent Uzbekistan is also member of leading economic and financial organizations such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Economic Association of Black Sea Countries, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and a number of other prestigious international organizations. The interest of partners in developing relationships with Uzbekistan is explained not only by the great potential of Uzbekistan’s natural resources, but also by the effectiveness of its economic policy.
To read more about history of Uzbekistan, please click here.
Map of Uzbekistan
Population (million), 1 Jan.2016: 31.57
Urban population (%): 51
Rural population (%): 49
Surface area (1000 km2): 447.4
State Language: Uzbek
Georgaphy of Uzbekistan
The Republic of Uzbekistan, situated at 41°N and 64°E , occupies the central place in Central Asia between two great rivers—the Amudarya and the Sirdarya. The Turan Lowland lies to the northwest, and the Tien-Shan and Pamir-Alay mountain ranges are located in the southeast of the territory. The Kyzyl-Kum Desert defines the northern part of the country. Five states are its neighbors: Afghanistan in the south, Kazakhstan in the north and northwest, Kyrgyzstan in the northeast, Turkmenistan in the southwest, and Tajikistan in the southeast. The total length of borders is 6,221 kilometers, and the state territory is 447.4 thousand km2 . The highest point in the Republic of Uzbekistan is 4,643 meters.
The Republic of Uzbekistan has 31,57 million inhabitants. The average population density is 51 persons per km2 . The urban population makes 51,4% of total population. The average life expectancy of people in Uzbekistan is 64 years for men and 70 years for women. Uzbekistan’s population is dispersed among the territories of the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan, 12 viloyats (oblasts), 163 tumans (districts), and 120 cities and towns.
The capital city is Tashkent, which has more than 2.7 million residents. The city possesses the highest economical, scientific and cultural potential in the country. Tashkent is political and economical center of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Flora & Fauna
Uzbekistan’s flora contains more than 3,700 species of plants. Plants endemic to Uzbekistan make up 20% of all plants; and a majority of these grow in mountains. Steppes and deserts are home to a variety of bushes, and the low plains house well developed wooden, bushy, and grassy plants. The country’s sub mountainous plains are characterized by grass, no trees, with small bushes are found among bodies of water. Various species of onion, tulips, rhubarb, and irises grow in sub-mountainous regions. Uzbekistan’s high foothills feature motley grasses. Deciduous trees such as almond, cherry, birch, hawthorn, maple, pistachio, poplar, wild apple, walnut, and willow trees are widespread. The lower mountains are rich in bushes: barberry, dog-rose, meadow-sweet, honeysuckle, and wild grape. Grasses are also very diverse, including muscat sage, rhubarb, tulip, Pskem onion.
In accordance with the Constitution, adopted on December 08, 1992, the Republic of Uzbekistan is the sovereign, democratic, law-governed state with Presidential form of government.
The head of the state is the President, elected by public elections of citizens. The supreme state representative body is the Oliy Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan that exercises legislative power.
The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists two chambers — the Legislative Chamber (the lower chamber) and the Senate (the upper chamber).
Cabinet of Ministers – The Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the executive power body of the Republic of Uzbekistan, ensuring guidance over effective functioning of the economy, social and cultural development, execution of the laws, and other decisions of Oliy Majlis, as well as decrees and resolutions issued by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
GDP (PPP) 2015 est.: $183.93 billion
GDP 2015 est.: $68.19 billion
GDP – real growth rate 2015: 8%
GDP – per capita (PPP) 2015 est.: $5,939
To download Macro-economic indicators for 2015, please click here.
Closest distance from sea (km): 2,950
Total road network (km): 81,600
Road density (km per 1,000 km2): 183
Paved roads (% of total): 87.3
Railway lines, total route (km): 4,126
Railway density (km per 1,000 km2): 9
More about Economy, Socio-Economic Development, Banking System, Fanance & Taxation, Science, Culture, etc. you can learn at the Government portal of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and at the website of the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics.
REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN
Republic of Karakalpakstan
Republic of Karakalpakstan situated in the North-west part of Uzbekistan and northwest of Kyzylkum Desert and delta of the Amu Darya River. Plateau Ustyurt, Kizilkum desert and the Aral Sea occupy most part of its territory.
The total area of the Republic is 165,600 square km. The climate is typical continental, with very hot summer and cold winters without snows. The population of Karakalpakstan is 1,600,000, major nationalities – Uzbeks (32.8%) and Karakalpaks (32.1%). Approximately 48% of the population lives in rural areas while the other 52% lives in urban areas. The Republic is divided into 15 administrative areas, 12 cities and 16 villages. Nukus is the administrative center of the Republic with the population of 236,700 people.
Other large cities are Khodjeyli, Kungrad and Chimbad.
The Republic of Karakalpakstan has large capacity of mineral recourses such as natural gas, granite, crude petroleum, kaolin, marble, phosphoric metals with gemstones and metals. The republic has the largest petroleum and gas deposits in Uzbekistan. About 20 deposits were discovered on a plateau Ustyurt. Primarily assessment of petroleum and gas resources on the Ustyurt plateau shows that there are 1.7 billions cubic meters of gas and 1.7 billions tons of liquid hydro-carbonate. The most developed industries – production of construction materials, agriculture and metal processing. There are textile factories and food processing plants, and Muynak fish canning factory.
Andijan Province: is located in the eastern part of the Fergana Valley. The total area is approximately 4,200 square km; climate is typical continental with quite big temperature differences between winter and summer. The population of the province is 2,400,000, average population density – 499 people per square km thus making the most densely populated region of Uzbekistan. The Province is divided into 14 administrative districts. Andijan City is the administrative centre of the Province with the population of 303,000 people.
Other main urban centres of the Province are Asaka, Khanabad and Karasu. Natural resources are represented by the extensive deposits of oil, natural gas, ozokerite and limestone.
There are also several big enterprises specializing in auto, textile, power generating, chemical and petrochemical industries.
Bukhara Province: is situated in the southwest part of Uzbekistan. The Kyzylkum Desert takes up the most part of its territory. The total area of the province is 39,400 square km. The Province has typical continental and dry climate. The population of the province is around 1,500,000 people, 68% of whom live in rural area and 32% in urban area. It consists of 11 administrative areas. The administrative centre of the Province is Bukhara City with population of 263,000people. The old city of Bukhara is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, famous as a “living museum” and a center for international tourism.
There are numerous historical and architectural monuments in and around the city and adjacent districts. Other cities of the Province are Gijduvan, Romitan, and Kagan.
Bukhara Province is rich with natural resources. The territory of the province also has big reserves of natural gas, oil, graphite, marble, granite, plaster, sulphur, lime and other raw materials that can be used for manufacturing of construction materials. Construction and petrochemical enterprises use local raw materials for their production needs. The most developed industries are cotton ginning, textile and silk industry. There are large deposits of petroleum and natural gas in areas adjunct to Kandim, Okkum, Parsonkul and other areas with approximate capacity of oil reaching 10 million tons and natural gas reaching 220 billion cubic meters. The largest oil-refining factory located in the territory of the province uses these deposits. Given aspect may have an attractive point for the foreign investors as it has a large development potential on a basis of existing deposits with setting up joint ventures with the local companies.
Jizzah Province is located in the central part of Uzbekistan. Total area of the province is 20,500 square km. The climate is typical continental and dry with hot summer and moderate winters. The population is 920,000 people with average population density – 108 persons per square km. The Province is divided into 11 administrative areas with Jizzah City being an administrative centre. This city has 127,000 inhabitants. Other large cities are Gagarin, Galiaral, Pahtakor, Dustlik and Mardjanbulak.
The economy of the province is based mainly on agriculture.
The province possesses a rich mineral and natural resources which are currently used in an insufficient degree. There are several mines of gold, silver, lead zinc, iron in the province.
Kashkadarya Province is located in the basin of the Kashkadarya river on the western slopes of Pamir-Alay Mountain Massif. The total area of the Province is 28,400 square km. The climate is typical continental, dry and partially subtropical. The Province population is 2,400,000 people, more than 73% of whom live in rural area. Kashkadarya is divided into 14 administrative districts with Karshi City serving as the administrative centre. The City of Karshi has 177,000 inhabitants. Other large cities are Shahrisabz, Kitab, Khasan, Murabek, Yakkabag, Guzar and Kamashi.
Natural resources include significant petroleum and natural gas reserves, with the Mubarek Oil and Gas Processing Plant as the region’s largest industry.
Other industry includes wool processing, textiles, light industry, food processing and construction materials. Major agricultural activities include cotton, various crops and livestock. The irrigation infrastructure is very well developed with the large Talimardjan reservoir as a reliable water source.
In the province the main part of hydrocarbon reserves in Uzbekistan is concentrated. On oil and gas extraction, refining and processing, the province takes leading place in the country. The largest industrial enterprise is Mubarek petroleum and gas processing factory. There are also large deposits of gas condensate.
Navoiy Province is located in the northwest part of Uzbekistan in the middle of Kyzylkum desert. The total area of the province is 110,800 square km. The Kyzyl-Kum Desert takes up a large portion of its territory, which is the largest of the provinces of Uzbekistan except for the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic. The Province has typical continental and dry climate. The population is approximately 770,000 people, about 59.4% of which live in rural areas and 40.6% live in urban areas. The Province is divided into 8 administrative districts.
The city of Navoiy is the administrative centre of the province. The population of the city is around 128,000 people. Other large cities of the province are Uchkuduk and Zarafshan.
Navoiy Province has large stocks of natural gas and deposits of precious metals, as well as large stocks of raw materials for production of construction materials.
Navoiy Province has significant natural resources, especially natural gas, petroleum, and precious metals, plus raw materials for construction. The province’s economy is heavily dependent on large mining, metallurgical, and chemical production complexes. The Navoi and Zarafshan mines produce some of the world’s purest gold. The enterprise NavoiyAzot is the largest producer of mineral fertilizers in the country.
Namangan Province is located in the southern part of the Fergana Valley in far eastern part of a country. It is on the right bank of Syr Darya River and borders with Kyrgyzstan, Fergana Province and Andijan Province. It covers an area of 7,900 sq. km. The climate is typical continental, with hot and dry summer and moderate humid winter. The population of the Region is 2,100,000 people, 62.3% of whom live in rural area and 37.7% in urban area. The Province is divided into 11 administrative districts with the city of Namangan being the administrative centre. The city has 341,000 inhabitants. Other large cities of the Region are Pap, Uchkurgan, Turakurgan, Chartak, Halkabad and Chust. Natural resources include deposits of petroleum, natural gas, gold, lead, copper, quartz and antimony.
Main agriculture includes cotton, horticulture and sericulture, animal husbandy, including breeding of Angora goats for their valuable down hair.
Industry is primarily based on textiles, with two large silk production complexes, a non-woven fabric manufacturing plant, cotton yarn processing, and numerous smaller textile, leather and footwear plants. The area is also a center for the production of traditional Uzbek handicrafts, especially knives. There are a number of joint ventures with foreign investments producing cotton yarn, rubber shoe, soft drinks, and leather goods.
Surhandarya Province is located in the southern part of Uzbekistan, on border with Afghanistan. The total area of the Province is 20,800 square km. The climate is typical continental with moderate winter and hot summer. The Province population is approximately 1,900,000, with the most part 79.8% living in rural areas. The Province is divided into 14 administrative districts Termez being the administrative centre. The population of Termez is 95,000. Other large cities are Denau, Bayshun, Sherabad and Shurdji.
Natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Light industry, food processing and construction materials are also important parts of the economy, particularly in the production of consumer goods.
Agriculture is based on cotton, sericulture, horticulture and wine. Surxondaryo is the country’s largest supplier of thin-fibrous cotton. The climatic conditions of this region also make it possible to cultivate subtropical crops such as sugarcane.
Samarkand Province is located at the centre of Uzbekistan in the basin of the Zarafshan River. Total area is 16,400 square km. Province climate is typical continental and droughty. The population is 2,900,000 people, from which three quarters live in rural areas. The Province is divided into 16 administrative districts with the average population density of 149 persons per square km. The administrative centre of the Province is Samarkand City with the population reaching 366,000. Other large cities are Kattakurgan, Nurata, Urgut, Juma and Aktash.
Samarkand is the 2nd largest center for economy, science, and culture in Uzbekistan, after Tashkent. The Institute of Archeology at the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan is based at Samarqand.
The Province’s UNESCO World Heritage Site architectural monuments are world famous, and make Samarkand the largest center for international tourism in the country.
Samarqand Province also has significant natural resources, including construction materials such as marble, granite, limestone, carbonate, and chalk. The Province’s major agricultural activities are cotton and cereal growing, winemaking and sericulture. In terms of industry, metal processing (spare parts for automobiles and combines), food processing, textiles, and ceramics industries are the most active in the area.
Syrdaryo Province located in the center of the country on the left bank of Syr Daryo River. The Mirza chul (Hunger Steppe) occupies the essential part of the Province. The total area of the Province is 5,100 square km; climate is typical continental and droughty. The population of the Province is 700,000. Syrdarya Province is divided into 9 administrative districts with Gulistan serving as the administrative center. Gulistan’s population is 54,000. Other large cities are Bakht, Syrdarya, Shirin and Yangier.
The economy is based on cotton and cereal crops, with strong reliance on irrigation and on cattle breeding. Minor crops include forage plants, vegetables, melons, gourds, potatoes, maize, a variety of fruit and grapes.
Industry consists of construction materials, irrigation equipment and raw-cotton processing. The Syrdarya power station in the city of Shirin is considered as one of the largest power stations in the CIS which produces one third of all electric power of the country.
Tashkent Province is located in the northeast part of Uzbekistan between western slopes of Tan Shan Mountain Chain and the Syrdarya river. The total area of the Province is 15,300 square km. The climate is typical continental with moderate and humid winters and hot and dry summers.
The population of the Province is 4,700,000 with average population density of 147 persons per square km. The Province is divided into 15 administrative areas. The capital is Tashkent City (pop est 2,200,000 inhabitants), which is also the capital of the country, and is governed separately from the province as an independent city. There are also 16 cities, and among the largest ones are Angren, Almalik, Ahangaran, Yangiabad and Yangiyul.
Besides there are other 17 cities and settlements. Manufacturing sector of the Province is well developed. The Province is rich with brown stone coil, copper, molybdenum, zinc, gold, silver, rare metals and etc.
Tashkent Province is the most economically developed province of the country. One of the largest metallurgical enterprises in the Central Asia – Olmalik mining combine is the only in the country that produces non-ferrous and rare-earth metals. In the city of Bekabad metallurgical combine is the only in the country that produces steel, steel hire and other products from ferrous metals.
Fergana Province is located in the southern part of the Fergana Valley. The total area of the Province is 6,800 square km. The climate is typical continental with moderate winters and very hot summers. The population is approximately 2,900,000 from which approximately 70.7% live in rural areas. The Province is divided into 15 administrative districts. The administrative centre is Fergana City with 214,000 people. Other large cities are Kokand, Kuvasay, Margilan and Rishtan.
Agriculture is the main economy activity of Fergana Province, primarily irrigated cotton, sericulture and horticulture. Animal husbandry concentrates on meat and milk production.
Natural resources include deposits of petroleum, ceramic clays, and construction materials.
Industry is primarily based on oil refining, fertilizer and chemical production, textile and silk weaving, light industry, clothing and ceramics. A number of oil refinery factories operate in Fergana City and Aytanchik. The area is also a center for the production of traditional Uzbek handicrafts, especially pottery.
Khorezm Province is located in the northwest part of Uzbekistan. Total surface area is 6,100 square km. The Province climate is continental with moderately cold winter and dry hot summer. The population is 1,450,000 people with some 80% living in rural areas. The Province is divided into 10 administrative districts with Urgench serving as the administrative center. Urgench has 135,000 inhabitants. Other main cities are Khiva and Djuma. The city of Khiva in Khorezm Province is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with world famous architectural monuments, making Khiva one of the main centers for international tourism in the country.The economy of Khorezm Province is primarily based on cotton. Cotton is by far the main crop, although rice production has increased significantly in the last several years.
There are also many orchards and vineyards, melon and gourd plantations and potato fields. Khorezm Province is famous for its “gurvak” melon in Uzbekistan. Industry is also heavily oriented to cotton, with cotton refining, cottonseed oil extraction and textiles predominating. The Khiva Carpet-Weaving Factory produces “persian carpets” for export.
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